Steven John Armstrong

Job Title : Research Fellow

Management Domain
People Management & Leadership

Expert in
Organisational Behaviour
Cognitive Styles
People Management & Leadership
Management Education


Steven Armstrong is research fellow at Vlerick Business School and professor at Hull University Business School (UK). He previously spent 15 years at the leading edge of research, design and development within the electronics industry and became an R&D manager responsible for new product developments involving major multi-million pound projects. He moved into management education in the UK Higher Education sector in 1993 and soon became the recipient of a prestigious Teaching Fellowship for innovations in curriculum development, teaching and learning. Since then he has completed a PhD in Organisational Behaviour, organised several international conferences, edited 3 books, and authored over 40 peer reviewed book chapters and journal articles, in journals such as Journal of Management Studies, Academy of Management Education and Learning, and Learning and Individual Differences. In 2002, he was elected into a five-year term of office within the US Academy of Management, taking the position of President of the Management Education and Development Division. He also served as a Chief Editor of the International Journal of Management Reviews. His research interests lie in the field of individual differences psychology.

Below you can find a selection of publications from Steven Armstrong. You can consult his full CV via this link.



Articles in refereed journals with impact

  • Cools E. Armstrong S. Verbrigghe J.  2014. Methodological practices in cognitive style research: insights and recommendations from the field of business and psychology. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 23(4): 627-641.

  • Armstrong S. Cools E. Sadler-Smith E.  2012. The role of cognitive styles in business and management: Reviewing 40 years of research. International Journal of Management Reviews, 14(3): 238-262.

  • Armstrong S.  2011. Continuing our quest for meaningful impact on management practice. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 10(2)

  • Armstrong S. Fukami C.  2010. Self Assessment of knowledge: a cognitive learning or affective measure? Perspectives from the management learning and education community. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 9(2): 335-342.

  • Armstrong S. Hird A.  2009. Cognitive style and entrepreneurial drive of new mature business owner managers. Journal of Business and Psychology, 24(4): 419-430.

  • Peterson E. Armstrong S.  2009. The psychology of cognitive style and learning styles: is there really a future?. Learning and Individual Differences Journal, 19(4): 518-523.

  • Armstrong S. Mahmud A.  2008. Experiental learning and the acquisition of managerial tacit knowledge. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 7(2): 189-208.

  • Armstrong S. Sadler-Smith E.  2008. Learning on demand, at your own pace, in rapid bite-sized-chunks: the future chape of management development?. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 7(4)

  • Armstrong S. Wilkinson A.  2007. Processes, procedures and journal development: past, present and future (editorial). International Journal of Management Reviews, 7(3): 81-93.

  • Armstrong S. Wilkinson A.  2005. International Journal of Management Reviews: History, purpose and mission (editorial). International Journal of Management Reviews, 7(3): 131-133.

  • Armstrong S.  2005. Postgraduate management education in the UK: Lessons from or Lessons for the US Model?. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 4(2): 229-235.

  • Priola V. Smith J. Armstrong S.  2004. Group-work and cognitive style: a discursive investigation. Small Group research, 35(5): 565-595.

  • Hayes J. Allinson C. Armstrong S.  2004. Intuition, Women managers and gendered stereotypes. Personnel Review, 33(3): 403-417.

  • Armstrong S. Allinson C. Hayes J.  2004. The effects of cognitive style on research supervision: a study of student-supervisor dyads in management education. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 3(1): 41-63.

  • Armstrong S.  2004. The impact of supervisors' cognitive styles on the quality of research supervision in management education. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 74(4): 599-616.

  • Armstrong S. Allinson C. Hayes J.  2002. Formal mentoring systems: an examination of the effects of mentor-protege cognitive styles on the mentoring process. Journal of Management Studies, 39(8): 1111-1137.

  • Armstrong S. Priola V.  2001. Individual differences in cognitive style and their effects on task and social oreintations of self-managed work-teams. Small Group research, 32(3): 283-312.

  • Allinson C. Armstrong S. Hayes J.  2001. The effects of cognitive style on leader-member exchange: a study of manager-subordinate dyads. Journal of occupational and organisational Psychology, 74(2): 201-220.

Articles in other (un)refereed journals

  • Fukami C. Armstrong S.  2009. The scholarship of management education and development: past, present and future perspectives. 

  • Mahmud A. Armstrong S. Zhu Z.  2004. The influence of learning styles on knowledge acquisition in public sector management. Educational Psychology, 24(4): 549-571.

  • Armstrong S.  2000. The influence of individual cognitive style on performance in management education. Educational Psychology, 20(3): 323-340.

  • Armstrong S. Allinson C. Hayes J.  1997. The implications of cognitve style for the management of student-supervisor relationships. Educational Psychology, 17(1 & 2): 209-218.

Book Chapters

  • Armstrong S. van der Heijden B. Sadler-Smith E.  2011. Intellectual styles, management of careers, and improved work performance. In: Zhang L. Sternberg R. Rayner S. Handbook of intellectual styles: preferences in cognition, learning, and thinking

  • Armstrong S. Fukami C.  2011. Linking Management Research and Management Education: Syntheses and challenges. In: Cassel K. Lee W. Challenges and controversies in management research

  • Armstrong S. Cools E.  2009. Cognitive style and its relevance for management practice and organizational behavior: A review of developments over the past two decades and recommendations for future research. In: Sternberg R. Zhang L. Perspectives on the nature of intellectual styles (pp. 253-290).

  • Armstrong S. Fukami C.  2009. Past, present and future perspectives of management learning, education and development. In: Armstrong S. Fukami C. Handbook of management learning, education & development (pp. 1-22).

  • Armstrong S. Thursfield D. Landri P. Ponzini G.  2008. Challenges of educating European managers of lifelong learning. In: Wankel C. DeFillippi R. University and corporate innovations in lifelong learning

  • Weir D. Mahfod J. Armstrong S.  2007. Management training and development in the context of Human Resource Management in Libya. In: Kumar K. Training and development: country experiences

  • Armstrong S.  2007. Re-thinking management education: from cognition to action to learning. In: Research Memorandum 75, The Business School Hull University.

  • Armstrong S.  2006. Cognitive styles and learning styles: origins and implications for teaching, learning and research in cross cultural contexts. In: Ong S. Apfelthaler G. Kansen H. Tapachai N. Intercultural communication competencies in higher education and management

  • Armstrong S. Priola V.  2003. An examination of how differences in cognitive style affect the functioning of self-managing work-teams. In: Hill J. Armstrong S. Graff M. Rayner S. Sadler-Smith E. Learning and cognitive styles: conceptions and uses in teaching and learning

  • Armstrong S.  2002. Inquiry and style: research verities and the development of a consensual theory?. In: Valk M. Gombier D. Armstrong S. Francis A. Graff M. Hill J. Rayner S. Sadler-Smith E. Spicer D. Smith W. Reliability and validity: book of proceedings of the 7th Annual Conference of the European Learning Styles Information network

  • Armstrong S.  2000. Individual differences in cognitive style and their potential effects on organisational behaviour. In: Riding R. Rayner R. International perspectives on Individual differences: new developments in learning/cognitive style (pp. 215-238).

  • Armstrong S.  1999. The impact of cognitive differences on the supervision process. In: Tarras M. Teaching and learning: variety in theory and practice (pp. 29-44).

  • Brown S. Armstrong S. Thompson G.  1998. The art of motivating students in Higher Education?. In: Brown S. Armstrong S. Thompson G. Motivating students (pp. 1-7).

  • Armstrong S.  1997. Research supervision: managing the student experience. In: Armstrong S. Thompson G. Brown S. Facing up to radical changes in Universities and colleges (pp. 108-119).


  • Armstrong S. Fukami C.  2009. Handbook of management learning, education & development. Sage Publications.

  • Armstrong S. Graff M. Peterson E. Sadler-Smith E. Schiering M.  2005. Enhancing learning and performance through styles: proceedings of the 10th annual learning styles information network conference. 

  • Hill J. Armstrong S. Graff M. Sadler-Smith E.  2003. Learning and cognitive styles: conceptions and uses in teaching and learning. Sunderland University Press.

  • Armstrong S. Graff M. Lashley C. Peterson E. Sadler-Smith E. Schiering M. Spicer D.  2003. Learning styles: bridging theory and practice.. 

  • Brown S. Armstrong S. Thompson G.  1998. Motivating students. 

  • Armstrong S. Thompson G. Brown S.  1997. Facing up to radical changes in Universities and colleges. Kogan Page.

Conference Presentations

  • Cools E. Armstrong S. Verbrigghe J.  2012. Methodological Practices in Cognitive Style Research: A 25-Year Review. Paper presented at Academy of Management (AOM) Conference, August 3-7, Boston, United States.

  • Cools E. Armstrong S. Sadler-Smith E.  2011. Research and methodological practices in the field of cognitive styles: a two-decade review. Paper presented at 15th European Congress on Work and Organizatiional psychology (EAWOP), May 25, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

  • Cools E. Armstrong S. Sadler-Smith E.  2010. Methodological practices in the field of cognitive styles: a review study. Paper presented at 15th European Learning Styles Information Network (ELSIN) conference, June 28-30, Aveiro, Portugal.

  • Cools E. Armstrong S. Sadler-Smith E.  2009. Practices, trends and implications of methodological practices in the cognitive style field: a systematic review. Paper presented at 14th European Learning Styles Information Network (ELSIN) Conference, June 17-19, Bulle-en-Gruyère, Switzerland.

Conference Proceedings

  • Armstrong S. Backhaus K. Verbrigghe J. Cools E.  2012. An inquiry into the antecedents of high quality leader-member exchange relationships and their consequences for the transfer of managerial tacit knowledge and other organisational variables. In: Charlesworth Z. Cools E. Evans C. Individual differences. Proceedings of the 17th Annual conference of the Education, Learning, Styles & Individual differences Network (ELSIN) (pp. 44-55).

Vlerick working papers

  • Cools E. Armstrong S. Sadler-Smith E.  2010. Research methodology in the cognitive style field: a review study in the area of business and management, 1988-2007. Vlerick Working Paper Series 2010/09 (32p.).

  • Armstrong S. Cools E.  2009. Cognitive styles in business and management: a review of development over the past two decades. Vlerick Working Paper Series 2009/02 (48p.).