Leonardo Meeus


Leonardo Meeus is Associate Professor of Energy Markets at Vlerick Business School in Brussels, Belgium. Before joining Vlerick, he worked in Ireland for an energy infrastructure project developer, and in Italy for the Florence School of Regulation at the European University Institute.

Leonardo is a commercial engineer with a PhD in Electrical Engineering, both from KU Leuven. At Vlerick, he is director of the Future Grid Managers Programme. He is also a part-time professor of the Florence School of Regulation, and a visiting professor of the KU Leuven.


Job Title : Associate Professor & Director Energy Centre

Management Domain

Expert in
Electricity Industry
Energy Markets
European Energy Policy
Energy Networks


Articles in refereed journals with impact

  • Saguan M. Meeus L.  2014. Impact of the regulatory framework for transmission investments on the cost of renewable energy in the EU.. Energy Economics, 43(May): 185-194.

  • Trinh Q. Saguan M. Meeus L.  2013. Experience with electricity market test suite: students versus computational agents. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 28(1): 112-120.

  • He Y. Keyaerts N. Meeus L. Hancher L.  2013. How to engage consumers in demand response: a contract perspective. Utilities Policy, 27: 108-122.

  • Azevedo I. Meeus L.  2013. Mobilizing cities towards a low-carbon future: Tambourines, carrots and sticks. Energy Policy, 61(October): 894-900.

  • Meeus L. Saguan M.  2011. Innovating grid regulation to regulate grid innovation: from Orkney Isles to Kriegers Flak via Italy. Renewable Energy, 36(6): 1761-1765.

  • Meeus L.  2011. Why (and how) to regulate Power Exchanges in the EU market integration context. Energy Policy, 39(3): 1470-1475.

  • Meeus L.  2011. Implicit auctioning on the Kontek Cable: third time lucky?. Energy Economics, 33(3): 413-418.

  • Vandezande L. Meeus L. Belmans R. Saguan M.  2010. Well-functioning balancing markets: a prerequisite for wind power integration. Energy Policy, 38(7): 3146-3154.

  • Meeus L. Vandezande L. Cole S. Belmans R.  2009. Market coupling and the importance of price coordination between power exchanges. Energy, 34(3): 228-234.

  • Verhaegen K. Meeus L. Belmans R.  2009. Towards an international tradable green certificate system - The challenging example of Belgium. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13(1): 208-215.

  • Meeus L. Verhaegen K. Belmans R.  2009. Block order restrictions in combinatorial electric energy auctions. European Journal of Operational Research, 196(3): 1202-1206.

  • Verhaegen K. Meeus L. Belmans R. Delvaux B.  2007. Electricity produced from renewable energy sources - what target are we aiming for?. Energy Policy, 35(11): 5576-5584.

  • Meeus L. Purchala K. Van Hertem D. Belmans R.  2006. Regulated cross-border transmission investment in Europe. European Transactions on electrical power, 16(6): 591-601.

Articles in other (un)refereed journals

  • Meeus L.  2014. Offshore grids for renewables: do we need particular regulatory framework. Economics of Energy & Environmental Policy, 43

  • Meeus L.  2012. Appraisal of the European Commission's Energy Roadmap 2050. European Energy Journal, 2(2): 48-54.

  • Meeus L. Azevedo I. Marcantonini C. Hafner M.  2012. EU 2050 low-carbon energy future: visions and strategies. Electricity Journal, 25(5): 57-63.

  • Kessel C. Meeus L. Schwedler C.  2011. Experience with interconnection merchant projects under regulation (EC) 1228/2003: Perspectives for regulation (EC) 714/2009. Utilities Law Review, 18(4): 147-155.

  • Delarue E. Laga L. Meeus L. Belmans R. D'haeseleer W.  2011. Achieving learning potentials in an educational simulation game for trading and generating electrical energy. International Journal of Engineering Education, 27(4): 703-712.

  • Ahner N. Meeus L.  2010. Global vs. low carbon economy: The case of the revised EU emissions trading scheme. Review of European Community and International Environmental Law, 20(1): 373-382.

  • Küpper G. Delvaux B. Meeus L. Bekaert D. Willems B. Proost S. D'haeseleer W. Deketelaere K. Belmans R.  2009. Does more international transmission capacity increase competition in the Belgian electricity market. The Electricity Journal, 22(1): 21-36.

  • Vandezande L. Meeus L. Belmans R.  2008. The next step in the Central Western European electricity market: cross-border balancing. Revue-E, 124(1): 19-24.

  • Meeus L. Belmans R.  2008. Electricity market integration in Europe. Revue-E, 124(1)

  • Belmans R. Meeus L.  2007. Implementing the European internal energy market in 2005-2009, a proposal from Academia. European Review of Energy Markets, 1: 51-85.

  • Vandezande L. Meeus L. Van Calster G. Belmans R.  2006. Evaluation of economic merger control techniques applied to the European electricity sector. The Electricity Journal, 19(6): 49-56.

  • Meeus L. Belmans R.  2006. Regional electricity market integration - France - Belgium - Netherlands. Revue-E, 122(3): 17-24.

Book Chapters

  • Meeus L. Hadush S. Momber I.  2016. Regulation of smart grids. In: Liu C. Ed. Smart Grid Handbook John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  • Meeus L. Saguan M. Belmans R.  2012. Smart regulation for smart grids. In: Glachant J. Ahner N. Meeus L. EU Energy Innovation Policy Towards 2050 Claeys & Casteels.

  • Meeus L. Azevedo I. Marcantonini C. Hafner M.  2012. Transition towards a low carbon energy system by 2050: what role for the EU?. In: Glachant J. Ahner N. Meeus L. EU Energy Innovation Policy Towards 2050 Claeys & Casteels.

  • Purchala K. Meeus L. Belmans R.  2006. Rozwoj rynkow energii elektrycznej. In: Seria Elektroenergetyka Unii Europejskiej (pp. 189-214).

  • Purchala K. Meeus L. Belmans R.  2005. Congestion management in a market environment. In: Series: The European power supply industry (pp. 169-192).


  • Ahner N. Meeus L.  2012. EU Energy Innovation Policy Towards 2050. Claeys & Casteels.

Conference Presentations

  • Buijs P. Meeus L. Belmans R.  2011. Modelling bi-level games in transmission investments. Paper presented at IAEE International Conference, June 19-23, Stockholm, Sweden.

  • Vandezande L. Saguan M. Meeus L. Belmans R.  2009. Assessment of the implementation of cross-border balancing trade between Belgium and the Netherlands. Paper presented at 6th International Conference on the European Electricity Market (EEM09), May 27-29, Leuven, Belgium.

  • Meeus L. Buijs P. Coulondre J. Ott A. DiCaprio A.  2009. Impact of market designs on generation adequacy. Paper presented at Cigré symposium on Operation and Development of Power Systems in the new Context, October 28-30, Guilin, China.

  • Vandezande L. Meeus L. Belmans R. Saguan M.  2008. Implementation of cross-border balancing in Europe. Paper presented at International Conference on Infrastructure Systems 2008, November 10-12, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

  • Buijs P. Meeus L. Delarue E. Belmans R.  2008. European energy policy goals: rivals or friends in transmission. Paper presented at 43 rd International Universities Power Engineering Conference. UPEC 2008, September 1-4, Padova, Italy.

  • De Jonghe C. Meeus L. Belmans R.  2008. Development of a framework for well performing RES-E supporting measures. Paper presented at Infraday, October 10-11, Berlin, Germany.

  • Meeus L. Belmans R.  2007. Is the prevailing wholesale market design in Europe and North America comparable?. Paper presented at The IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting 2007, June 24-28, Florida, United States.

Conference Proceedings

  • Meeus L. D'haeseleer W.  2009. Entry in European natural gas retail markets: accessing the right contract portfolio. Leuven:

  • Vandezande L. Saguan M. Meeus L. Belmans R.  2009. Lacking balancing market harmonisation in Europe: Room for trader profits at the expense of economic efficiency?. San Francisco:

  • Meeus L. D'haeseleer W.  2009. First results of the integrated european gas market: one for all or far from one. Buenos Aires:

  • Delarue E. Laga E. Meeus L. Belmans R. D'haeseleer W.  2009. Techno-economic educational simulation games for trading and generating electrical energy. Leuven:

  • Meeus L. Van Hertem D. Delarue E. Küpper G. Belmans R. D'haeseleer W. Deketelaere K.  2009. How to increase cross border transmission capacity? A case study: Belgium. (pp. 261-266). Leuven:

  • Trinh Q. Meeus L.  2009. From Florence forum to florence process: a look back. Leuven:

  • De Jonghe C. Meeus L. Belmans R.  2008. Power exchange price volatility analysis after one year of trilateral market coupling. Lisbon:

  • Meeus L. Belmans R.  2008. Electricity market integration in Europe. Glasgow:

  • Vandezande L. Meeus L. Belmans R.  2007. Estlink: a first of many merchant transmission investments in Europe?. In: Proceedings of Transmission & Distribution Europe 2007 Prague:

  • Buijs P. Meeus L. Belmans R.  2007. A SWOT analysis of the Belgian generation adequacy. In: Proceedings of 4th International conference on The European Electricity Market EEM'07 (pp. 17-23). Krakow:

  • Buijs P. Meeus L. Belmans R.  2007. EU policy on merchant transmission investments: desperate for new interconnectors?. Berlin:

  • Vandezande L. Meeus L. Van Calster G. Belmans R.  2006. Application of EU competition law in the electricity sector. In: Proceedings of 3rd International conference on The European Electricity Market EEM'06 (pp. 81-88). Warsaw:

  • Cole S. Meeus L. Belmans R.  2006. Assessment of a market coupling implementation based on price differences. In: Depré L. Vandevelde L. Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE Benelux Young Researchers Symposium in Electrical Power Engineering Ghent:

  • Verhaegen K. Meeus L. Belmans R.  2006. Energy and the environment: what target are we aiming for?. In: Proceedings of 3rd Internation conference on The European Electricity Market EEM'06 (pp. 167-175). Warsaw:

  • Verhaegen K. Meeus L. Vandezande L. Belmans R.  2006. Distribution network tariffs: fairness of pricing systems in Europe. In: Proceedings of Distribution Europe Conference Barcelona:

  • Cole S. Van Hertem D. Meeus L. Belmans R.  2006. The influence of renewables and international trade on investment decisions in the gird of the future. In: Proceedings of ICREPQ'06 International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality Palma de Mallorca:

  • Vandezande L. Meeus L. Van Calster G. Belmans R.  2006. Evaluation of economic merger control techniques applied to the electricity sector. In: Proceedings of Conference of Regulation Firenze:

  • Verhaegen K. Meeus L. Belmans R.  2006. Development of balancing in the internal electricity market in Europe. In: Proceedings of European Wind Energy Conference Athens:

Research reports

  • Momber I. Viaene S. Meeus L.  2016. What every DSO should know about digital: transformational perspectives. Vlerick Business School. (32 p.)

  • Meeus L. Hadush S.  2015. Emerging regulatory practice for new business related to distribution grids. Vlerick Energy Centre. (6 p.)

  • Momber I. Tackx K. Hadush S. Meeus L.  2015. White Paper: who will lead the energy market in 2030?. Vlerick Energy Centre. (19 p.)

  • Meeus L. Keyaerts N.  2015. First series of cross-border cost allocation decisions for projects of common interest: main lessons learned. Florence School of Regulation.

  • Tackx K. Meeus L.  2015. Outlook on the European dso landscape 2020 - The trends that will change the name of your game. Vlerick Business School. (15 p.)

  • Meeus L. Dobbeni D.  2015. White paper: A wind of change is blowing through the power grid. Vlerick Business School. (17 p.)

  • Meeus L. Keyaerts N.  2014. The role of the EU and ACER to ensure an adequate regulatory framework from projects of common interest. Florence School of Regulation.

  • Meeus L. von der Fehr N. Azevedo I. He X. Olmos L.  2013. Cost benefit analysis in the context of the Energy Infrastructure Package. EU FP7 Framework Program.

  • He X. Hancher L. Keyaerts N. Meeus L.  2013. Shift, not drift: towards active demand response and beyond. Florence School of Regulation.

  • Meeus L. Lévêque F. Azevedo I. Saguan M.  2012. Offshore grids: towards a least regret EU policy. EU FP7 Framework Program.

  • Meeus L. Kaderjak P. Azevedo I. Kotek P.  2012. How to refurbish all buildings by 2050. EU FP7 Framework Program.

  • Meeus L. Azevedo I. Marcantonini C. Hafner M.  2012. Transition towards a low carbon energy system by 2050: what role for the EU?. EU FP7 Framework Program.

  • Meeus L. Leal V. Azevedo I. Delarue E. de oliveira Fernandes E.  2011. Smart cities initiative: how to foster q quick transition towards local sustainable energy systems. EU FP7 Framework Program.

  • Vandezande L. Purchala K. Meeus L. Belmans L. Deuse J. Stubbe M.  2009. Study of the interactions and dependencies of balancing markets, intraday trade and automatically activated reserves. 

  • Ahner N. Meeus L.  2009. Report for MEDREG: Experience with regional cooperation to create regional markets. 

Vlerick cases

  • Viaene S. Momber I. Meeus L.  2017. Enedis - Smart Market Maker, Not Market Take. The Case Centre Case Study. Reference no. 317-00001-1 (C).

Vlerick working papers

  • Keyaerts N. Meeus L.  2015. The experience of Italy and the US with exceptional regulatory incentives for exceptional electricity transmission investments. 2015/44

  • Saguan M. Meeus L.  2011. Modeling the cost of achieving a renewable energy target: does it pay to cooperate across borders?. 2011

  • Meeus L. Delarue E.  2011. Mobilizing cities towards a low carbon future: tambourines, carrots and sticks. 2011

  • Meeus L. Azevedo I. Marcantonini C. Hafner M.  2011. EU 2050 low-carbon energy future: visions and strategies. 2011

  • Delarue E. Meeus L. Belmans R. D'haeseleer W.  2011. Decarbonizing the European electric power sector by 2050: A tale of three studies. 2011

  • Meeus L. Delarue E. Azevedo I. Leal V. de oliveira Fernandes E.  2010. Smart cities initiative: how to foster a quick transition towards local sustainable energy systems. 2010

  • Meeus L.  2010. Implicit auctioning on the Kontek Cable: third time lucky?. 2010

  • Meeus L. Saguan M. Belmans R.  2010. Smart regulation for smart grids. 2010

  • Meeus L.  2010. Why (and how) to regulate Power Exchanges in the EU market integration context?. 2010